Module autobahn.twisted

Autobahn Twisted specific classes. These are used when Twisted is run as the underlying networking framework.


The component API provides a high-level funcional style method of defining and running WAMP components including authentication configuration

class autobahn.twisted.component.Component(main=None, transports=None, config=None, realm=u'realm1', extra=None, authentication=None, session_factory=None, is_fatal=None)[source]

A component establishes a transport and attached a session to a realm using the transport for communication.

The transports a component tries to use can be configured, as well as the auto-reconnect strategy.

  • main (callable taking 2 args: reactor, ISession) – After a transport has been connected and a session has been established and joined to a realm, this (async) procedure will be run until it finishes – which signals that the component has run to completion. In this case, it usually doesn’t make sense to use the on_* kwargs. If you do not pass a main() procedure, the session will not be closed (unless you arrange for .leave() to be called).
  • transports (None or unicode or list of dicts) –

    Transport configurations for creating transports. Each transport can be a WAMP URL, or a dict containing the following configuration keys:

    • type (optional): websocket (default) or rawsocket
    • url: the router URL
    • endpoint (optional, derived from URL if not provided):
      • type: “tcp” or “unix”
      • host, port: only for TCP
      • path: only for unix
      • timeout: in seconds
      • tls: True or (under Twisted) an twisted.internet.ssl.IOpenSSLClientComponentCreator instance (such as returned from twisted.internet.ssl.optionsForClientTLS) or CertificateOptions instance.
  • realm (unicode) – the realm to join
  • authentication (dict mapping auth_type to dict) – configuration of authenticators
  • session_factory (callable) – if None, ApplicationSession is used, otherwise a callable taking a single config argument that is used to create a new ApplicationSession instance.
  • is_fatal (callable taking one arg, or None) – a callable taking a single argument, an Exception instance. The callable should return True if this error is “fatal”, meaning we should not try connecting to the current transport again. The default behavior (on None) is to always return False

alias of autobahn.twisted.wamp.Session, log_level='info')[source]

High-level API to run a series of components.

This will only return once all the components have stopped (including, possibly, after all re-connections have failed if you have re-connections enabled). Under the hood, this calls – if you wish to manage the reactor loop yourself, use the autobahn.twisted.component.Component.start() method to start each component yourself.

  • components (Component or list of Components) – the Component(s) you wish to run
  • log_level (string) – a valid log-level (or None to avoid calling start_logging)

WebSocket Protocols and Factories

Classes for WebSocket clients and servers using Twisted.

class autobahn.twisted.websocket.WebSocketServerProtocol[source]

Base class for Twisted-based WebSocket server protocols.

Implements autobahn.websocket.interfaces.IWebSocketChannel.

class autobahn.twisted.websocket.WebSocketClientProtocol[source]

Base class for Twisted-based WebSocket client protocols.

Implements autobahn.websocket.interfaces.IWebSocketChannel.

class autobahn.twisted.websocket.WebSocketServerFactory(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Base class for Twisted-based WebSocket server factories.

Implements autobahn.websocket.interfaces.IWebSocketServerChannelFactory


In addition to all arguments to the constructor of autobahn.websocket.interfaces.IWebSocketServerChannelFactory(), you can supply a reactor keyword argument to specify the Twisted reactor to be used.

class autobahn.twisted.websocket.WebSocketClientFactory(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Base class for Twisted-based WebSocket client factories.

Implements autobahn.websocket.interfaces.IWebSocketClientChannelFactory


In addition to all arguments to the constructor of autobahn.websocket.interfaces.IWebSocketClientChannelFactory(), you can supply a reactor keyword argument to specify the Twisted reactor to be used.

WAMP-over-WebSocket Protocols and Factories

Classes for WAMP-WebSocket clients and servers using Twisted.

class autobahn.twisted.websocket.WampWebSocketServerProtocol[source]

Twisted-based WAMP-over-WebSocket server protocol.


class autobahn.twisted.websocket.WampWebSocketClientProtocol[source]

Twisted-based WAMP-over-WebSocket client protocol.


class autobahn.twisted.websocket.WampWebSocketServerFactory(factory, *args, **kwargs)[source]

Twisted-based WAMP-over-WebSocket server protocol factory.


alias of WampWebSocketServerProtocol

class autobahn.twisted.websocket.WampWebSocketClientFactory(factory, *args, **kwargs)[source]

Twisted-based WAMP-over-WebSocket client protocol factory.


alias of WampWebSocketClientProtocol

WAMP-over-RawSocket Protocols and Factories

Classes for WAMP-RawSocket clients and servers using Twisted.

class autobahn.twisted.rawsocket.WampRawSocketServerProtocol[source]

Twisted-based WAMP-over-RawSocket server protocol.


class autobahn.twisted.rawsocket.WampRawSocketClientProtocol[source]

Twisted-based WAMP-over-RawSocket client protocol.


class autobahn.twisted.rawsocket.WampRawSocketServerFactory(factory, serializers=None)[source]

Twisted-based WAMP-over-RawSocket server protocol factory.


alias of WampRawSocketServerProtocol

class autobahn.twisted.rawsocket.WampRawSocketClientFactory(factory, serializer=None)[source]

Twisted-based WAMP-over-RawSocket client protocol factory.


alias of WampRawSocketClientProtocol

WAMP Sessions

Classes for WAMP sessions using Twisted.

class autobahn.twisted.wamp.ApplicationSession(config=None)[source]

WAMP application session for Twisted-based applications.


Implements autobahn.wamp.interfaces.ISession()

class autobahn.twisted.wamp.ApplicationRunner(url, realm=None, extra=None, serializers=None, ssl=None, proxy=None, headers=None, max_retries=None, initial_retry_delay=None, max_retry_delay=None, retry_delay_growth=None, retry_delay_jitter=None)[source]

This class is a convenience tool mainly for development and quick hosting of WAMP application components.

It can host a WAMP application component in a WAMP-over-WebSocket client connecting to a WAMP router.

  • url (str) – The WebSocket URL of the WAMP router to connect to (e.g. ws://
  • realm (str) – The WAMP realm to join the application session to.
  • extra (dict) – Optional extra configuration to forward to the application component.
  • serializers (list) – A list of WAMP serializers to use (or None for default serializers). Serializers must implement autobahn.wamp.interfaces.ISerializer.
  • ssl (twisted.internet.ssl.CertificateOptions) – (Optional). If specified this should be an instance suitable to pass as sslContextFactory to twisted.internet.endpoints.SSL4ClientEndpoint` such as twisted.internet.ssl.CertificateOptions. Leaving it as None will use the result of calling Twisted’s twisted.internet.ssl.platformTrust() which tries to use your distribution’s CA certificates.
  • proxy (dict or None) – Explicit proxy server to use; a dict with host and port keys
  • headers (dict) – Additional headers to send (only applies to WAMP-over-WebSocket).
  • max_retries (int) – Maximum number of reconnection attempts. Unlimited if set to -1.
  • initial_retry_delay (float) – Initial delay for reconnection attempt in seconds (Default: 1.0s).
  • max_retry_delay (float) – Maximum delay for reconnection attempts in seconds (Default: 60s).
  • retry_delay_growth (float) – The growth factor applied to the retry delay between reconnection attempts (Default 1.5).
  • retry_delay_jitter (float) – A 0-argument callable that introduces nose into the delay. (Default random.random)

Stop reconnecting, if auto-reconnecting was enabled.

run(make, start_reactor=True, auto_reconnect=False, log_level='info', endpoint=None, reactor=None)[source]

Run the application component.

  • make (callable) – A factory that produces instances of autobahn.twisted.wamp.ApplicationSession when called with an instance of autobahn.wamp.types.ComponentConfig.
  • start_reactor – When True (the default) this method starts the Twisted reactor and doesn’t return until the reactor stops. If there are any problems starting the reactor or connect()-ing, we stop the reactor and raise the exception back to the caller.

None is returned, unless you specify start_reactor=False in which case the Deferred that connect() returns is returned; this will callback() with an IProtocol instance, which will actually be an instance of WampWebSocketClientProtocol